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   2014| May-June  | Volume 6 | Issue 3  
    Online since July 12, 2017

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Ramadan fasting in children with epilepsy: An exploratory study
Waseem Mahmoud Fathalla
May-June 2014, 6(3):114-117
Objective: To observe seizure occurrence during the month of Ramadan among fasting Muslim children with epilepsy who are on treatment with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Methods: Prospective observational study of pediatric patients with epilepsy intending to fast in Ramadan of the year 2011 and 2012. Patients identified through pediatric neurology clinic visits in the 3 months prior to Ramadan were asked whether they plan to fast Ramadan or not. They were counseled on medication compliance, medication rescheduling, seizure precautions, and management of breakthrough seizures. Patients were advised against fasting if their epilepsy was not controlled. The outcome was assessed by verbal report on their follow up visit after Ramadan. Results: 20 patients (13 males, 7 females, with age range of 7-14 years, median age 10 years) with 19 reported patient fasting cycles were identified (2 patients fasted on both years, 3 patients did not fast). There were only 2 reported seizures in 19 patient fasting cycles. All patients reported compliance with the medication schedule as directed in the pre-Ramadan visit. There were no reported adverse effects to the new schedule of medication administration. Conclusions: Fasting Ramadan in children with epilepsy appears to be feasible with proper physician guidance and patient compliance. Anticipatory guidance is essential in caring for children with epilepsy who intend to participate in religious based activities that may potentially modify their risk for seizures.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  1,308 130 1
Histological effects of permethrin insecticide on the testis of adult wistar rats
Gabriel Olaiya Omotoso, Ismail Olasile Onanuga, Ridwan Babatunde Ibrahim
May-June 2014, 6(3):125-129
Permethrin is a common constituent in some household insecticides. This study examined the effects of this chemical on the testicular histology of exposed rats. Fifteen adult male Wistar rats were subgrouped into a control and two treatment groups. The controls were fed on normal rat feeds, whilst the diet of animals in the two treatment groups was mixed with 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg Permethrin respectively. An increase in body weights and organ weights was observed in the animals in both treatment groups. Various degrees of histological alterations in the structure of their seminiferous tubules were also observed in comparison with the control group. These abnormalities included disruption of the normal architecture, reduction in the population of mature sperm cells, wider luminal diameter and reduced interstitial spaces. These effects could impair the fertility potential of male subjects.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  1,191 121 3
Inflammation versus oxidative stress in pathophysiology of alzheimer's disease in rat model
Omyma Galal Ahmed, Hayam Zakaria Thabet, Aml Aly Mohamed
May-June 2014, 6(3):130-144
Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a highly debilitating neurodegenerative disorder characterized by cognitive dysfunction. Inflammation and oxidative stress are thought to play major roles in the pathophysiology. Which one has the principle role is unclear. Objectives: The role of brain growth factors, cytokines and oxidative biomarkers in cognitive dysfunction induced by Aluminium chloride (AlCl3) in rats with application of an anti-inflammatory (Cilostazol) and an antioxidant (N-acetyl cysteine, NAC) were investigated to clarify the predominant pathophysiological mechanism involved. Methods: Alzheimer's model group was given AlCl3 (100 mg/kg) orally for six weeks. Alzheimer's model + NAC, and Alzheimer's model + Cilostazol groups were given (NAC) and Cilostazol respectively one hour before AlCl3 for the same duration. Results: Anti-inflammatory or antioxidant interventions significantly improved memory retention, which was evaluated by Morris Water Maze, passive avoidance task, and eight-arm radial maze. This improvement was consistent with histological recovery and was mediated by reduction AlCl3 concentration in the brain hippocampus and frontal cortex, interference with the cholinergic dysfunction, as well as prevention of oxidative damage. In addition, anti-inflammatory agents can modulate superiorly the inflammatory response via reduction of the levels of inflammatory cytokines and adjustment of the levels of brain–derived neurotrophic factors and transforming growth factor B. Conclusions: These finding support the principal role of inflammation in pathophysiology of AD and suggests the potential therapeutic application of anti-inflammatory agents for this condition.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  1,089 116 -
Significance of some trace elements in semen of infertile men
Abdalla Asaf Abed, Amad Jarad
May-June 2014, 6(3):145-151
Objectives: The biological significance of trace elements in male infertility was studied. Levels of Zinc, Copper, Iron and Magnesium in the seminal plasma of infertile men and controls were measured. The relationships between these elements, seminal characteristics, and serum reproductive male hormones were explored. Patients and Methods: Seventy two infertile men on no treatment were selected from the central infertility center, Al Shifa hospital, Gaza, Palestine were studied and 72 known fertile males were used as controls. Semen samples were analyzed according to WHO criteria and seminal plasma trace elements were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Serum hormonal levels were measured by conventional methods. Results: The mean values of Zinc and Magnesium were significantly lower in infertile men than controls (69 vs. 122 mg/L and 67 vs 120 mg/L) respectively. All studied seminal parameters (sperm count, forward motility, weak motile and non-motile) were significantly lower in the infertile group than in controls. Serum luteinizing hormone and testosterone were significantly lower in the infertile group than in controls (p<0.05). No significant difference in serum follicle stimulating hormone levels was detected between groups. Within the infertile group, seminal plasma Zinc and Magnesium levels correlated directly to the sperm count (r=0.376, P=0.001 and r=0.293, P=0.013 respectively), and testosterone (r=0.293, P=0.012 and r=0.324, P=0.003 respectively). Zinc and Magnesium were inversely related to the seminal volume (r=-0.251, P=0.034 and r=-0.369 P=0.001 respectively). Conclusion: Our findings supports a possible role for Zinc and Magnesium in spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  1,082 122 -
Idiopathic laryngeo-tracheal stenosis: An illustrative case report
Zeead M Al Ghamdi, Shadi A Alshammary, Ayman El-Baz, Mohamed Regal
May-June 2014, 6(3):155-158
Idiopathic laryngeo-tracheal stenosis (ILTS) is characterized by the formation of a scar-like circumferential stenosis affecting the subglottic area and extending to a variable length in the upper trachea. We report an illustrative case of ILTS in a 33 years old lady who presented with progressive dyspnea and stridor and was managed as bronchial asthma for the prior 2 years. Her bronchoscopic and radiologic imaging revealed extensively narrowed subglottic segment 5 mm below the vocal cords that extended into the upper trachea. Definitive laryngeo-tracheal resection and reconstruction (Pearson's repair) was performed with a satisfactory result. She remained free of symptomatic and radiologic recurrence over 4 years of follow up.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  1,027 108 -
Characteristics and outcome of primary hyperoxaluria type 1 patients in Jenin district, Palestine
Jamal Qasem Abumwais
May-June 2014, 6(3):118-124
Background: Primary hyperoxaluria (PH) type 1 is a rare inherited metabolic disorder leading to urolithiasis, nephrocalcinosis and most often end-stage renal disease (ESRD). PH type 1 is the most common and the most severe form of primary hyperoxalurias worldwide. In the developing world, patients with PH type 1 usually have a poor prognosis and short survival time. Objectives: We aimed to document the characteristics and outcome of PH type 1 patients in Jenin district, Palestine being the type commonly seen here. Patients and Methods: 18 patients were diagnosed with primary hyperoxaluria type 1 in Jenin District (Palestine) between 2005 and 2012. A review of the patients' charts was performed and the following parameters were recorded: sex, age, age at first symptoms, age at ESRD (onset of dialysis), history of conservative treatment, history of parental consanguinity, family history of the disease, and outcome or current status. Some data were obtained directly from physicians and nurses of the kidney unit and/or from patients' families. Results: Seven patients were males and 11 were females. Mean age at diagnosis was 3.12 years while the median was 0.42 year (range: 3 months - 20 years). All the patients were from one tribe and the rate of parental consanguinity was 100%. Regarding patients' outcome, 7 children died before initiation of hemodialysis (6 of them during infancy and one at 8 years of age), 2 patients died from complications of liver or combined liver-kidney transplantation procedures, 2 patients died while on hemodialysis, 5 patients were still on conservative treatment at last follow-up, and 2 patients remained on hemodialysis. There was an important heterogeneity in symptoms, age at first symptoms, and age at ESRD. Conclusion: The high mortality rate among our patients compared to that found in the literature, may be due to the severity of the disease, shortage of some medical facilities such as absence of pediatric hemodialysis, preemptive liver or combined liver-kidney transplantation operations in Palestine. Abbreviations: AGXT gene: alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase gene; ESRD: end-stage renal disease
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  955 124 -
Unexplained hyperglycemia in a patient on insulin pump therapy; transient insulin failure?
Irina Kolesnikova, Bachar Afandi
May-June 2014, 6(3):152-154
Hyperglycemia may occur with no apparent medical, dietary, insulin delivery or pump failure reasons. We herein present a case of persistent hyperglycemia secondary to transient insulin failure in a 24 year old lady with type 1 diabetes mellitus who is being treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  946 128 -