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   2012| March-April  | Volume 4 | Issue 2  
    Online since July 17, 2017

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Effect of sensory motor rhythm neurofeedback on psycho-physiological, electro-encephalographic measures and performance of archery players
Maman Paul, Sathiyaseelan Ganesan, Jaspal Singh Sandhu, Joel Varghese Simon
March-April 2012, 4(2):32-39
Neurofeedback is an effective tool in sports psychology to train athletes to enhance performance levels. Archery players are required to concentrate on accuracy during archery performances, which tends to be attained by a peak sensory motor rhythm of the electroencephalography component. The selected subjects of university level archery players have intervened with neurofeedback for four weeks. Measurements were taken to find the effect of neurofeedback training (NFT) on heart rate deceleration, precompetition pleasure level, post-competition pleasure level, pre-competition arousal level, post-competition arousal level, performance level, precision, sensory motor rhthm (SMR)/ theta ratio and SMR epoch mean of archers during competition. Statistical analysis reveals that pre-competition pleasure level (p< 0.05), pre-competition arousal level (p< 0.05), post-competition arousal level (p< 0.01) and SMR/ theta ratio (p< 0.05) showed statistically significant changes [deleted after the effective twelve sessions of SMR neurofeedback training] in the experimental group but not the control group. After twelve sessions of NFT training the experimental group archers were able to regulate the psychological status and EEG components during archery performance. The result of the present study suggests that neurofeedback training improves the archery players' regularity in scoring by enhancing accurate arrow shoot attained by controlling and regulating psycho-physiological and electro-encephalographic measures.
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Identification of prednisolone, methylprednisolone and their metabolites in human urine using HPLC (+) ESI-MS/MS and detection of possible adulteration in Indian herbal drug preparations
Ahi Shobha, Dubey Sachin, Upadhyay Awanish, S Yadav, Rakesh , Priyadarshi Rahul, Beotra Alka
March-April 2012, 4(2):44-52
Objective: To explore the possibility of identifying the maximum number of metabolites of prednisolone and methylprednisolone by LC-MS/MS and to further test the application of this developed method on six Indian herbal drug preparations. Method and Materials: The sample extraction procedure involves enzymatic hydrolysis and liquid-liquid extraction and further analysis using LC-MS/ MS. The excretion profile was performed with four healthy male volunteers after administration of 40 mg and 8 mg of prednisolone and methylprednisolone, respectively. Six herbal drug preparations obtained from All India Institute of Medical Sciences, India were tested to detect the possible adulteration with prednisolone or methylprednisolone. Results: The Analytical method was validated as per the requirement of WADA International Standard of Laboratories (version 6.0). The parent compound and ten urinary metabolites of prednisolone could be identified. The parent, M-1, M-2 and M-3 could be detected up to 72 hours while rest of the metabolites were detectable up to 24 hours. In the case of methylprednisolone, the parent compound and six urinary metabolites were identified. M-1 and M-2 of methylprednisolone were detectable up to 48 hours while the parent drug methylprednisolone and other metabolites were detectable up to 24 hours. Out of the six herbal drugs tested, one showed the presence of prednisolone. Conclusion: The improved detection method developed for the identification and detection of prednisolone and methylprednisolone metabolites would prove highly beneficial in extending the time of detection of drug abuse in athletes and also detecting spiked ayurvedic, homeopathic and unani preparations.
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Primary central nervous system lymphoma in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patient
Rajaie A Namas, Jegede Olugbemiga, Imran Shafique, Wihib Gebregeorgis, Saqib Hasan, Mohamad El Mortada, Gurkan Ege, Ghassan Bachuwa
March-April 2012, 4(2):53-59
Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare form of non-Hodgkins lymphoma of the central nervous system and eye. It is over 1000 times greater in HIV positive than in non-HIV populations. The decline in its incidence since the introduction of the highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) suggests an association of this tumor with severe and prolonged immunosuppression. Clinical presentation results from neurological deficits related to the site of the tumor. Systemic B symptoms are also common. The detection of EBV DNA from the CSF, by nested PCR, is a highly sensitive and specific for HIV-related PCNSL. We present the case of a 31-yearold African American man with medical history significant for AIDS who presented with one-month history of lack of energy and somnolence. CSF appearance was normal. MRI suggested primary CNS lymphomas or toxoplasmosis. CSF EBV DNA by PCR was found to be positive. The clinical presentation of PCNSL is similar to that of toxoplasmosis encephalitis in patients diagnosed with HIV. The initial differentiation between the two pathologies on presentation is important since treatment differs and early treatment has been shown to reduce mortality.
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Hypercalcemia: Uncovering a rare case of skeletal muscle non-hodgkin's lymphoma
Abdelkarim Waness, Saeed Al-Shieban, Mohammed Harakati
March-April 2012, 4(2):40-43
We report a case of an 80-year man who presented with a two-week history of confusion and poor oral intake. He was found to be dehydrated with acute kidney injury, hypercalcemia, and pancytopenia. A previously undetected right leg mass was discovered. Radiologic studies of the right knee found a fibula shaft fracture. MRI confirmed this finding and showed the presence of a heterogeneous mass involving most of the calf muscles. Biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of a rare musculoskeletal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the right leg. A brief discussion to this type of pathology follows this rare presentation.
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A rare presentation of mediastinal lymphoma: Upper airway obstruction and internal jugular vein thrombosis
Muhammad A Badawi, Junaid Alam, Ziauddin Khan
March-April 2012, 4(2):60-62
Internal jugular vein (IJV) thrombosis is a rare disease, and is usually encountered in intravenous drug users, prolonged central venous catheterization, deep seated head and neck infections or trauma. Associated malignancies are uncommon, and not well documented in the etiology of IJV thrombosis. A 39 year old woman presented to the Emergency Room with heavy vaginal bleeding secondary to uterine fibroids. She developed symptoms of upper airway obstruction while in the hospital. Ultrasound (U/S) and neck computerized tomography (CT) revealed a sizeable mass in the lower neck region and left internal jugular vein thrombosis (IJV). Management difficulties with neck mass and internal jugular vein (IJV) thrombosis is discussed along with review of literature.
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