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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2010| March-April  | Volume 2 | Issue 2  
    Online since July 18, 2017

 
 
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REVIEW
Needle stick injuries: An overview of the size of the problem, prevention & management
Moazzam A Zaidi, Salem A Beshyah, Robin Griffith
March-April 2010, 2(2):53-61
DOI:10.4103/1947-489X.210971  
Over 20 million dedicated health care providers (HCP) expose themselves to biological, chemical, and mechanical hazards daily. The World Health Organization estimates that approximately three million health care providers are exposed to blood and body fluid due to needle stick or sharps injuries annually. Blood and body fluid exposures have resulted in 57 documented cases of HIV seroconversion among healthcare personnel through 2001. Two thousand workers a year become infected with hepatitis C, and 400 contact hepatitis B. There are more than 20 additional types of infectious agents documented to be transmitted through needle sticks. More than 80% of needle stick injuries are preventable with the use of safe needle devices. Legislation has been developed in many countries to protect HCPs by encouraging employers to use best practices to prevent these exposures. Many different protocols for post exposure management of needle stick injuries or blood and body fluid exposure have been proposed. Effectiveness of a protocol depends on early initiation of post exposure management. HIV prophylaxis has the smallest window of time treatment and has to be initiated as soon as possible, preferably in the first few hours. Hepatitis B Immunoglobulin (HBIg) could be given within the first seven days. Healthcare institutions should develop policies and procedures to reduce needle stick injuries by proactively instituting these recommendations, vaccinating all HCP for Hepatitis B (HBV), and incorporating improved engineering controls into a comprehensive needle stick injury prevention program. In this review, we present historical background, nature and size of the problem, followed by review of the state of the art of the prevention, clinical management, and corporate responsibilities.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  13 1,374 218
ARTICLES
Efficacy of spirulina supplementation on isometric strength and isometric endurance of quadriceps in trained and untrained individuals – a comparative study
JS Sandhu, Bhardwaj Dheera, Shenoy Shweta
March-April 2010, 2(2):79-86
DOI:10.4103/1947-489X.210974  
Objective: To determine the efficacy of spirulina supplementation in enhancing isometric muscle strength and endurance in trained and untrained human beings. Design: Placebo controlled, different subject experimental. Setting: University level athletes and college students of Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, India. Subjects: Forty healthy subjects (20 trained and 20 untrained) participated in the study and were divided into 4 groups, supplemented untrained (n=10), placebo untrained (n=10), supplemented trained (n=10), placebo trained (n=10). Subjects in both supplemented groups volunteered to take spirulina for 8 weeks in addition to their normal diet. Subjects in the placebo groups served as control and were given capsules filled with flour. Outcome measures: Peak force, average force and fatigue index of dominant quadriceps muscle were measured before and after 8 week of supplementation. Values were compared within and between the groups. Results: The results show that spirulina supplementation is effective with time in increasing peak force (p<0.01), average force (p<0.01) and decreasing fatigue index (p<0.01) on paired t-test. Significant group and supplementation effects were also found with ANOVA analysis for peak and average force. However no significant effects (p>0.05) were found between the groups with ANOVA in decreasing fatigue index. Conclusion: Spirulina for 8 weeks is effective in increasing the isometric muscle strength and isometric muscle endurance. Spirulina supplementation with training was found to be better than the spirulina only and training only in increasing muscle strength but no group was found to be better in increasing muscular endurance.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  5 3,033 337
Oral health condition and treatment needs of a group of UAE children with down syndrome
Mohamed A Jaber
March-April 2010, 2(2):62-71
DOI:10.4103/1947-489X.210972  
Objectives: Several studies have described the oral health condition and treatment needs of individuals with Down syndrome (DS), but there are no reports about DS patients in UAE. This study was conducted to determine the oral health condition and treatment needs in these patients. Methods: Sixty children with DS attending Sharjah School for Humanitarian Service (SSHS) were selected for the study. In the evaluation, the children were compared with a normal non-DS control group selected from children attending college of dentistry Ajman University dental clinics and matched for age and sex. Clinical assessment included extraoral and intraoral examination, measurement of decayed (D), missing (M) and filled (F) teeth (DMFT) for permanent dentition and (dmft) for primary dentition, while periodontal evaluation included recording of oral hygiene status, plaque index (P1), gingival index (GI), probing depth (PD), and clinical attachment level (CAL). Periodontal and gingival health status was recorded according to the Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN). DS children were also examined for malocclusion, dental hypoplasia, crowding, and missing teeth. Results: Compared with normal controls, children with DS had mean number of DMFT almost twice as high as that in the parallel healthy controls (13.2 ± 0.84 vs. 7.4 ± 3.94). More of the DS children showed poor oral hygiene. The assessment of the periodontal treatment needs of the DS children revealed that only 10% of the children had healthy gingiva compared with 38.3% of healthy controls. Significantly high proportion of DS patients (p < 0.05) require complex periodontal treatment. DS patients have shown a significantly higher proportion of malocclusion (p < 0.01), compared with non-DS subjects. Conclusion: Individuals with DS in UAE have poor oral health and an increased occurrence of periodontal disease and dental caries compared with otherwise normal, age-matched control groups. Preventive, restorative and periodontal treatment needs are unmet in DS children. These findings reinforce the importance of promoting the integration of the dental specialists to the interdisciplinary team that provides healthcare for this group of children.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  2 998 140
The use of oral sildenafil citrate in hemodialysis patients: A multi-center double-blind placebo-controlled study
Sallami Sataa, Jamel Dakhlia, Baligh Oueslati, Klaa Khemais
March-April 2010, 2(2):72-78
DOI:10.4103/1947-489X.210973  
Efficacy and safety of oral sildenafil citrate use in hemodialysis patients is not very well documented. We undertook a study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of oral sildenafil in treating erectile dysfunction in hemodialysis patients. A total of 50 male hemodialysis patients (mean age 49.2 years) with ED were recruited for this double- blind, placebo-controlled prospective study. Patients were randomized into two groups of 25 patients and received either a placebo or sildenafil. Patients in sildenafil group were started on a 50-mg dose, and the dose was increased to 100 mg if there was no response after 2 doses. Patients were asked to complete the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) and a global life-satisfaction questionnaire before and after each dose. Improvement was observed in 76% of the sildenafil patients compared with 12% of placebo patients using IIEF and global assessment questionnaire. Sildenafil was associated with improvement in the IIEF score in all domains except those related to sexual desire. Sildenafil use resulted in normal EF scores in 36% of sildenafil patients. No correlation was found between sildenafil failure and patient age, duration of ED and the duration and etiology of renal failure. Sildenafil was well tolerated. Side effects were rare but occurred equally in both groups. Conclusions: Sildenafil is a safe and satisfactory drug for improving erectile function in patients with ESRD without contraindications for this drug. Pretreatment scores on the IIEF may be useful in predicting the success of the treatment.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  - 953 123
CASE REPORT
Allergic fungal sinusitis presenting with hypopituitarism: A case report and literature review
Ali B Khalil, Donald Roberts
March-April 2010, 2(2):92-97
DOI:10.4103/1947-489X.210976  
Allergic fungal sinusitis is a form of noninvasive chronic sinusitis. In this report, we describe the successful treatment of a patient with allergic fungal sinusitis and hypopituitarism. A 41 year old female presented with history of nasal obstruction, anosmia, right periorbital headache, and amenorrhea. The diagnosis of allergic fungal sinusitis was made using nasal endoscopy, CT scan and MRI of head and paranasal sinuses. There was nearly complete obliteration of the paranasal ethmoid, maxillary, and sphenoid sinuses with erosion of the medial wall of the right orbit. In addition, there was displacement of the right globe and medial rectus, and effacement of the pituitary gland. The sphenoid sinus showed fluid containing free hyphae, but no fungal invasion of mucosa was noted. Pituitary assessment revealed anterior pituitary insufficiency. Bilateral endoscopic ethmoidectomy and transnasal and transseptal bilateral sphenoidotomy were performed. After three months of follow up on hormone replacement and antifungal therapy, the patient's headache, anosmia, and nasal obstruction were completely relieved, menses resumed, and the patient’s pituitary function had recovered.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  - 942 97
CONFERENCE REPORT
The fourth annual conference of the Arab Association for the Study of Diabetes and Metabolism (AASD); 18–20 November 2009, Cairo Sheraton Hotel, Cairo Egypt
Adela Elamami, Syed Gad, Salem A Beshyah
March-April 2010, 2(2):87-91
DOI:10.4103/1947-489X.210975  
In its fourth annual conference, the Arab Association for the Study of Diabetes and Metabolism (AASD) conducted a three-day international program of continuing medical education, patient education sessions, and medical exhibition. Over 1500 delegates from Egypt and more than 10 Arab countries attended the conference. Speakers came from Egypt, Libya, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Morocco, UAE, Germany, Greece, UK, and USA. The scientific program covered a wide range of the epidemiological, organizational, and clinical aspects of diabetes care including current guidelines, modern management of diabetes, cardiovascular disease in diabetes, diabetes in the Arab world, diabetic foot, and diabetic neuropathy etc. In this report, we present the highlights of the conference and critically appraise its proceedings.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  - 1,000 113
EDITORIAL
International classification of diseases: A call for adaptation in developing countries
Elhadi H Aburawi, Elmahdi A Elkhammas
March-April 2010, 2(2):51-52
DOI:10.4103/1947-489X.210970  
Full text not available  [PDF]
  - 744 111
QUIZ
The ECG quiz: “Similar but not the same!”
Fathi I Ali
March-April 2010, 2(2):98-102
DOI:10.4103/1947-489X.210977  
Full text not available  [PDF]
  - 635 109