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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
January-March 2021
Volume 13 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-45

Online since Saturday, April 10, 2021

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EDITORIAL  

A new year, a new index, and more hope p. 1
Salem A Beshyah, Issam M Hajjaji, Elmahdi A Elkhammas
DOI:10.4103/ijmbs.ijmbs_25_21  
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REVIEW ARTICLE Top

Solid organ transplantation medicine in Arab countries: A Narrative Review Focused on Ethical Aspects p. 3
Khalid Bel'eed-Akkari, Khadija Hafidh, Issam M Hajjaji, Salem A Beshyah, Elmahdi A Elkhammas
DOI:10.4103/ijmbs.ijmbs_16_21  
Introduction: Ethical issues have been at the center of transplantation medicine for the past 60 years. Arab countries are not without ethical concerns with living donations as the dominant type of organ source. There is no comprehensive review of the ethical consideration evolvement. This narrative review aims to examine the English medical literature over the past 25 years. Materials and Methods: This is a narrative review of the international literature from two online databases (PubMed and Scopus). The combined search term “Ethics and Transplantation” was coupled with the individual names of the countries of the Arab countries. Relevant literature was narrated in a concise thematic account. Results: The themes that emerged from the review process included global concern on transplantation ethics that touched on the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. Some reports on transplantation practice status in the MENA region address clinical practice, organization, and ethical considerations. Organ-specific reports focused on renal and liver transplantation. Several other researchers addressed the knowledge and attitudes of health-care professionals of transplantation and posttransplantation care. The ethics of transplantation medicine has focused on the donation and financially motivated provision of organs (mainly kidneys). A few authors have underscored the implications of the Istanbul declaration on the prevention of trafficking of human organs to the practice of transplant medicine. Being a Muslim-majority region, several authors addressed the ethical and medicolegal aspects of transplantation from an Islamic perspective. Conclusions: Ethical issues in transplantation are evolving in Arab countries. They are mostly related to religious and cultural backgrounds. A broader dialog between the medical community, Islamic scholars, and legislators must continue to align concepts such as brain death and donor compensation. Furthermore, a concerted effort is required to inform the public and further the transplant agenda.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Family history in patients with end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis in Tripoli, Libya p. 14
Jamila Salem Elamouri
DOI:10.4103/ijmbs.ijmbs_5_21  
Background: End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) is a global health problem due to increasing its burden worldwide. High-risk groups include family members of patients with ESRD. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of ESRD among dialysis patients' families. At Al-Shat kidney dialysis Center, Tripoli, Libya. So can conclude that the ESRD patient is an index case for a high- risk population. Methods: All patients' data were collected through direct interview with the patients for 15- 20 minutes and by reviewing patients' charts. Patients who decline consent to participate and those with mental or speech disability were excluded, and patients on peritoneal dialysis. The study carried at Al-Shat kidney dialysis centre, Tripoli, Libya. In January 2019. Results: 261 patients were interviewed, mean age 51.8 years (±15), nearly half (48.7%) of them, between 45 to 65 years and 31.8% younger than 45 years. 56.3% were men, and 43.7% were women. The leading causes of ESRD in these patients were DM, HTN, congenital abnormalities (APCKD/VUR) and GN (35.2%, 22.2%, 10%, 8%). Positive family history of ESRD was reportedby 26.8% of these patients. From them, 47% (33/70) were between 45 to 65 years ofage. 58.6% were male (41/70). 34.3% have diabetic, 20% have HTN, 13%have congenital abnormalities, and 7% GN. Conclusions: Positive familyhistory of ESRD was high in dialysis patients. These patients can be used as anindex case to identify high- risk population.
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Knowledge, attitudes, and practices about hepatitis B among medical and dental students of Karachi p. 20
Nazeer Khan, Saba Asghar, Hassaan Ahmed, Muhammad Asad Ali Khan
DOI:10.4103/ijmbs.ijmbs_140_20  
Objective: The objective of the study was to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) about Hepatitis B virus (HBV) among the students of medical and dental colleges of Karachi. Methodology: The cross-sectional study was conducted in five medical and dental colleges of Karachi. Students of the 3rd, 4th, and final year were invited to join the study. The questionnaire included sociodemographic information followed by three sections evaluating the knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding HBV. Twenty-nine questions were related to knowledge, 11 for attitude, and 4 for practices. Pearson's Chi-square test/Fisher's Exact test and Spearman correlation were utilized to find the association and correlation of knowledge, attitudes, and practices with independent variables. Results: Three hundred and seventy-nine students participated in the study. Two hundred and nine of them (78.9%) were females and 253 (66.8%) students were medical students. Ninety-five percent of the students correctly responded of the causative organism of HBV. Knowledge of MBBS and BDS students for transmission of HBV were significantly different for the questions: “mother to child,” coughing and sneezing' and “kissing.” Almost all the responses regarding complications due to HBV (respiratory failure, stroke, congestive heart failure liver, cirrhosis, colorectal cancer, and spine and bone fracture) received more than 90% of correct answers. In response to contraindication factors for HBV, only “extreme of ages” showed a significant difference between the genders. The percentage of poor, moderate, and good knowledge were 17.4%, 53%, and 29.6% respectively. About 60% of students indicated that they have gone through screening for HBV. About 20% of students indicated that they had experience of needle injury and only 43% of them taken postexposure prophylactic measures. Conclusion: Study revealed that the KAP of medical and dental students of Karachi are satisfactory and have been improved. However, few elements need to be focused in curricula and workshops for further improvement.
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Attitudes of physicians and scientists to peer reviewing for biomedical journals: A survey from the Middle East and Africa p. 32
Salem A Beshyah, Khawla F Ali, Khadija Hafidh
DOI:10.4103/ijmbs.ijmbs_141_20  
Introduction: Peer review is vital to the scientific publishing process. However, the present system has been criticized and accused of bias, lack of transparency, and failure to detect significant breakthroughs. Peer reviewers usually work pro bono, and their efforts are not formally acknowledged. Some journals have difficulty finding appropriate reviewers who can complete timely reviews, resulting in significant publication delay. Materials and Methods: An online survey of a convenience sample of clinicians and biomedical scientists from the Middle East (107) and Africa (69) was conducted to explore why reviewers decline to review and to ascertain their opinions on reviewer incentives. Items were scored on 5-point Likert scales, with low scores indicating low importance or low agreement. Results: One hundred and seventy two respondents provided adequate responses for analysis. Factors rated most highly in importance for the decision to accept to review a paper included contribution of the paper to the subject area (69.8%), the relevance of the topic to own work (66.0%), and desire to keep up to date with research (63.8%). The most highly rated factor that was important in the decision to decline to review was conflict with other workloads (69.4%), followed by low quality of submissions and tight time scale (65.8% for both), and lack of interest (65.1%). Most respondents agreed that financial incentives would not be effective when time constraints are prohibitive. However, reviewers agreed that nonfinancial incentives might encourage reviewers to accept requests to review: annual acknowledgment on the journal's website (78.5%), more feedback about the outcome of the submission (74.3%) and quality of the review (73.0%), appointment of reviewers to the journal's editorial board (69.1%), and being offered free subscription to the journal content (68.7%). Conclusions: Reviewers are more likely to accept to review a manuscript when it is relevant to their area of interest. Lack of time is the principal factor in the decision to decline. Reviewing should be formally recognized by academic institutions, and journals should acknowledge reviewers' work.
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PATHOLOGY CORNER Top

Image quiz: A bladder biopsy from a child with hematuria p. 41
Samir Kahwash
DOI:10.4103/ijmbs.ijmbs_4_21  
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BOOK REVIEW Top

Memorizing medicine faster and better p. 43
Issam M Hajjaji
DOI:10.4103/ijmbs.ijmbs_19_21  
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LETTER TO EDITOR Top

Dopa-responsive dystonia: Guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase 1, tyrosine hydroxylase, and sepiapterin reductase p. 44
Jamir Pitton, Ana Letícia Fornari Caprara
DOI:10.4103/ijmbs.ijmbs_23_21  
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